Icon of a nose highlighted on a face to represent nasal congestion

Nasal Congestion

You usually become congested as a result of an infection like a cold. Generally, it’s just a nuisance, though for infants it can sometimes become a problem that affects their breathing or ability to breastfeed.

Nasal Congestion Treatment

Decongestants can temporarily relieve sinus and nasal congestion caused by a cold. Saline nasal sprays and humidifiers can also help open up breathing passages.

Icon of the sinus passages on a face to represent sinus congestion

Sinus Congestion

Your sinuses are made up of 4 sets of hollow, air-filled pockets that are thinly lined with mucous membranes. When you have a cold or allergies, these membranes can get irritated and begin to produce too much mucus.

Sinus Congestion Treatment

Similar to when dealing with sinus and nasal congestion, some decongestants can temporarily relieve sinus congestion. Saline nasal sprays and humidifiers may also help open up your breathing passages.

Icon of a thermometer to represent fever.


A fever, or temporary increase in your body temperature above 98.6°F / 37°C, is your immune system’s way of fighting off a number of infections. When it comes to adults, a fever is usually not an immediate concern unless it reaches 103°F / 39.4°C or higher. However, a slightly elevated temperature in infants and toddlers may indicate a serious infection.

Fever Treatment

While a fever generally tends to go away within a few days, pain relievers such as acetaminophen can be used to help bring your temperature back to normal.

Icon of a pain point on a head to represent headache


Headaches fall into 2 camps: primary and secondary. Primary headaches occur due to chemical changes in your brain and result in the throbbing of blood vessels in your head, or inflammation of the muscles of your head and neck. A secondary headache usually happens because the cause of the headache is outside the head, such as infections or high blood pressure.

Headache Treatment

Pain relievers such as acetaminophen can be used to relieve mild-to- moderate pain when you have a headache associated with the flu.

Icon of air coming out of a mouth with force to represent coughing


A cough is simply your body’s way of trying to get rid of the irritation in your throat and your airways. However, if your cough persists for weeks and brings up discoloured or bloody mucus, we strongly advise you see a doctor. Chances are, there’s an underlying condition that requires medical attention.

Cough Treatment
If you have a cough, antitussive medications such as dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine can certainly help with relief.

Guaifenesin is an effective expectorant and well tolerated. It increases mucus volume, thinning and decreasing viscosity. This facilitates expectoration of sputum in patients with initially productive cough. It has been shown to reduce the chest discomfort associated with cough in patients with initially nonproductive, or with productive, cough.

A cough arising from a flu virus may have a similar evolutionary cycle to a cold. However, it is even more common to cough during an episode of the flu than when you have a cold. In fact, 93% of people with the flu report having a cough as a symptom. The reason for this is that when you have the flu, there is a higher risk of the infection descending to the lungs, triggering the cough reflex.

Icon of a painful throat inside a head to represent a sore throat

Sore Throat

If you feel pain, scratchiness, or irritation in your throat, you’ve caught a viral infection and have a sore throat.

Sore Throat Treatment
Pain relievers such as acetaminophen can be used to relieve mild-to-moderate pain.

Icon of pain points on a person’s chest to represent body aches

Body Aches

Soreness throughout your entire body generally means there is something else going on inside your system like a disease or infection, like the flu. But if the soreness is isolated in only 1 area, it’s probably not related to a cold or the flu, but more likely stress or overexertion from exercising.

Body Ache Treatment

Pain relievers such as acetaminophen can help relieve body aches and pains when you come down with the flu.

Icon of a drip coming out of a nose to represent a runny nose

Runny Nose

When you’re sick, a runny nose starts because bacteria, allergens, or a virus like a cold or the flu attacks and irritates your nose’s lining. This triggers an inflammatory reaction which causes your mucus production to go into overdrive.

Runny Nose Treatment
For a runny nose associated with the common cold, antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine can help provide you with relief.

Icon of misty air coming out of a mouth to represent sneezing


Sneezing is your reaction to something that’s irritating the inside of your nose.

Sneezing Treatment

If you need fast relief, antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine can help.